Each book in this series is a self guided historical walk through Annandale. Each walk explores the people and construction of Annandale. Each book covers two decades of Annandales History a hundred years apart. The first book in the series, 1890s Annandale: A Short Walk, covers the 1790s and 1890s.
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4.1 What is LED?
LED stands for light-emitting diode. LEDs are small light sources that become illuminated by the movement of electrons through a semiconductor material.
An LED lamp (LED light bulb) is a solid-state lamp that uses semi conductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as the source of light, rather than electrical filaments (incandescent light bulbs), plasma (used in arc lamps such as fluorescent lamps), or gas.
LED Lighting is more efficient, durable, versatile and longer lasting than incandescent and fluorescents lighting. LEDs emit light in a specific direction, whereas an incandescent or fluorescent bulb emits light — and heat — in all directions. LED Lighting uses both light and energy more efficiently.
4.2 What is LED Lighting being used for?
LEDs are most commonly known to be used as indicator lamps in electronic devices and more recently as lighting sources. These lighting sources vary from torches, car brake lights, indoor lighting to street lighting.
Within this report, the focus will be on three applications for LED Lighting in Leichhardt
1. LED for street lighting
2. LED for parks and car parks
3. LED for traffic signals
4.3 Where is LED Lighting being used/trialled?
LED Lighting is currently being trialled world wide and an overview of a selection of LED lighting projects is provided below according to the categorisation mentioned above.
4.3.1 LED for street lighting
1. City of Sydney In mid 2009, the City embarked on a LED street and public domain lighting trial to monitor the quality and type of lighting, compliance with Australian Standards for public lighting as well as ongoing operating costs, energy efficiency and durability.
The City of Sydney has currently extended the LED trial to Phase 2 to take full advantage of membership of the Lightsavers programme and better appreciate this new and rapidly evolving technology.
2. City of Gosnells, Western Australia
City of Gosnells is undertaking an investigation of new LED technology in one of its residential estates. The new LED luminaires are being trialled on lights owned and managed by the City of Gosnells.
3. Large scale LED installation- Department of Defence, Western Australia
The Garden Island base in Western Australia has installed the first 330 of around 2200 lights to replace the existing street lighting.
4. City of Tilburg, the Netherlands
The City of Tilburg is currently testing a new and innovative ‘light on demand’ LED street lighting system. Next to this new system, LED Lighting has been installed at 5 locations throughout the city.
5. Los Angeles, United States
The Californian city will replace 140,000 of its streetlight fixtures with LED units over the next five years with help from the Clinton Climate Initiative in one of the most extensive municipal lighting retrofits in the USA.
6. LED street lights, City of Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
The City of Ann Arbor began testing two LED street lighting technologies in March 2007.
7. LED Technologies for Main Road Applications, Canada
Welland, Ontario has become the first city in Canada and North America to install LED lights in a roadway (i.e. main road) application.
8. London, United Kingdom
Transport for London is testing high powered LED roadway lights in demanding applications on their Red Routes.
9. Guiyang, China
The municipal government is testing two Chinese-made LED street light luminaires, one on a riverside pedestrian pathway and another on a local street.
10. Mumbai, India
The Thane Municipal Corporation will install a trial of LED streetlights in the Greater Mumbai Region with support from the national government's Bureau of Energy Efficiency.
11. Kolkata, India
The Kolkata Municipal Corporation is testing over a 100 Indian made LED street light luminaries in several locales.
12. Hong Kong, China
Two municipal universities and the Hong Kong International Airport are testing and comparing Taiwanese, Chinese, and American-made LED pathway luminaries on their respective pilot sites.
4.3.2 LED for parks and car parks
1. City of Whitehorse, Victoria, 2004–05
The Brentford Square project, undertaken as part of the Sustainable Public Lighting Initiative, involved an upgrade of existing car park lighting, combining both retrofitting and the installation of new, more efficient light fittings. 15 LED marker lights (1 watt) were installed in the car park at the end of existing aisles.
2. City of Charles Sturt, South Australia, 2003
In April 2003, the City of Charles Sturt installed 17 energy efficient DIO (diode emitting) lights in place of 80 W Mercury Vapour lamps at Station Place, Hindmarsh.
3. City of Port Phillip, Victoria, 2001
In 2001, the City of Port Phillip replaced 290 mercury vapour (70 watt) lamps with DIO lights along its foreshore walking and cycling paths. However the light trial failed because of the low light level produced, and Council have since removed the lights.
4. Lake Macquarie, New South Wales, 17 January 2008
Lake Macquarie City Council in New South Wales has installed an LED floodlight, making it the first council in Australia to trial the new technology.
5. Adelaide, Australia
Pedestrian pathway LED retrofit in the northern parklands of Adelaide.
6. City of Rotterdam, the Netherlands
Witteveen Plein has been retrofitted with LED street lights from carrying manufacturers. People are encouraged to provide feedback on the most pleasant lights.
7. Toronto, Canada
Four City of Toronto agencies are testing parking lot, parking garage, and pedestrian pathway LED Lighting products, some with smart controls.
8. New York City, United States
The New York Department of Transportation is testing nine LED products in Central Park and on FDR East Side Drive.
4.3.3 LED for traffic signals
1. LEDs are suitable for traffic signals and exit signs and have become the standard replacement for all new traffic signal installations in Victoria and other states.
2. Since 2004, the New South Wales Roads and Traffic Authority (RTA) installs LED signals at all new or redeveloped intersections and is actively replacing existing incandescent light bulbs in traffic signals with LED.
3. Traffic signals, feature lighting and Help Phone lighting, VicRoads, Victoria, 2008.
All new traffic signals and variable message signs that VicRoads is installing have energy efficient light emitting diode (LED) technology. VicRoads also has an ongoing program for retrofitting older traffic signals with LED technology.
4. Hobart City Council, Tasmania, 2006-07
LED systems are now being installed in all new traffic lights in Tasmania and will progressively replace the conventional systems used in older lights as they come up for replacement.
5. Adelaide City Council, South Australia, 2000
Since trialling an LED traffic signals retrofit in June 2000, Adelaide City Council has retrofitted approximately a third of its intersections.
6. Westchester County Department of Public Works, United States.
In 1998, Westchester County began converting the incandescent lamps in its traffic signals to LEDs. Since then more than 30 intersections have been retrofitted with red and green LEDs and converted 12 yellow flashers to LEDs.
4.3.4 Outcome of trials
Due to the fact that not all trials have finished before this report was written, the outcomes are based on 5 trials that have been completed and were reported on: City of Sydney phase 1, Tilburg and Breda in the Netherlands, City of Port Phillip in Victoria and Ann Arbor in the United States. (Note: 193 LED street lighting pilot projects have been rolled out or started over the past 2 years in the Netherlands. Due to the legislative differences regarding the operation, maintenance and placement between the Netherlands and Australia, this report will not look at these projects.)
Apart from the trial in Port Phillip, all trials had positive outcomes. The City of Sydney reported that the overall energy use has decreased, lighting levels have gone up and that residents have responded to the trials very positively. The positive trials in the Netherlands have led to these Councils rolling out larger scale LED Lighting projects within their municipality. Ann Arbor has gone a step further, and has announced that all street lighting will be replaced in the near future with LED Lighting.
Port Phillip undertook an early trial in 2001 and it was concluded from this trial that the lighting levels that were provided by the selected lights was too low. Although the outcome of these trials (and the predicted outcomes for the other trials) have been largely positive, studies undertaken for the Dutch Federal Government and for the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) concluded that
Councils should not solely invest in LED technologies without taking current energy saving options in mind.
The Dutch study found that LED is a very efficient technology for lighting that can easily and readily be used for specific types of street lighting. However, in order to come to the best possible outcomes, the street lighting needs to be re-designed and manufacturers need to be chosen very carefully. The redesign is necessary because LED Lighting has different specifications compared to current lighting technologies, especially the way light is distributed. The Australian study found that LED Lighting does not always guarantee the best possible energy reduction. This is largely because LED technology for (street) lighting is relatively new. However, the technologies are rapidly changing.
These studies recommend that LED technology for street lighting should be investigated as part of lighting upgrade studies. It is not recommended to hold off on implementing lighting upgrades that will result in immediate energy use and emissions reductions until LED Lighting becomes widely available.
In addition, the Australian study highlighted the fact that standards for lighting in Australia, Europe and the United States differ significantly. The best possible solution for Europe might therefore not necessarily be the best possible option for Australia and vice versa.
Both studies conclude that trial projects should be undertaken to investigate where the best possible energy savings can be achieved within the local environments and that the state of the LED technology should be investigated on a regular basis, or at least when lighting retrofits or the installation of new lighting is being considered.
(The studies can be found on: http://www.iclei.org/index.php?id=6468 and http://www.agentschapnl.nl/content/eindrapportage-led-oplossingen-voor-openbare-verlichting (NB: in Dutch))
4.3.5 Opportunities for Leichhardt Council
Within the Leichhardt LGA, there are options to start trials with LED Lighting. The options presented focus on trials in the outdoor environment, as lighting replacements within indoor environments have recently taken place or are in the process of being carried out.
LED trials for indoor environments should be considered on a case by case situation, as placing LED Lighting often requires lighting redesigns.
220.127.116.11 Parking and floodlights
An opportunity exists to undertake a study to see if (flood) lights in car parks or flood/spot lights that light Council buildings can be replaced with LED lights. These lights are often on during the full length of dark periods and are highly visible to the public.
18.104.22.168 Active LED Lighting for Parks and walkways
In researching lighting for public spaces that would save energy (costs) while providing for a safe living environment, several lighting manufacturers are currently developing lighting systems that deliver light only when it is needed. However, the most comprehensive system currently operational in a major public space is the Phillips ‘Light on Demand’ system which is trialled in several European countries. This system includes a motion detector, which is wirelessly connected to the lanterns, the street lights ‘sense’ when the spaces are active and automatically provide higher or lower levels of light as required.
Research by Philips has shown that at night, the required lighting level for some streets is lower than the norm due to their lower levels of activity (it should be noted that safety was the main driver and concern for both Philips and involved Councils). Therefore, with this system installed in such a street, the street lights will dim to an energy saving mode (down to 20% of the lighting level when at full capacity). Whenever people walk or cycle past, the light level of the street lights, as well as the lights ahead of them, will increase to full capacity and once these people have passed, the lights will then automatically dim to the previous energy saving level. All system lighting levels and fading times, as discussed above, can be adjusted to meet individual needs.
After an assessment of possibilities for implementation in Leichhardt LGA, the following locations would be suitable to undertake a study for active LED Lighting as a light source:
1. the Bay Run (part care and control of Council);
2. the GreenWay (not under care and control of council, however council is a key stakeholder)
These locations fit the description of where the ‘Light on Demand’ system could lead to good environmental outcomes; environmental outcomes encompassing more than only emission reductions, but also including reduced light pollution for fauna and residents.
It should be noted that only part of the Bay Run is under Council’s care and control. The Greenway is also not under Council’s care and control, although Council is a significant stakeholder and has a place on various advisory groups that enable Council input about decisions.
On the 11th of May 2011, the Bicycle Advisory Committee supported the undertaking of a study of active LED Lighting as a light source for the Bay Run. This recommendation has not yet been adopted by Council. Suggestions for what should be included in the study are provided below:
• a list of suitable lighting products and manufacturers
• the cost savings for active LED Lighting compared to current lighting practices
• safety and security concerns
• the impact on flora and fauna of both active LED Lighting and current lighting practices
• how best to consult with the community
• possible impacts on residential amenities
• how to obtain community support
• draft tender documentation
22.214.171.124 LED lighting for traffic signals
The RTA is currently replacing all incandescent light bulbs in traffic signals with LED lights when signals need updating.
www.ramin.com.au/annandale/Annandale-LED-Lighting-Pilot-LMC-report.shtml Last updated 3 August 2011.